### Models

Filter by:
See only Definition?:

In the manual science teachers can find practical steps and examples of how to use the developed pedagogical tools - models, examples and experiments in their everyday educational process. The manual is based on the approach for development of comprehension in science education, in particular the development of reverse thinking and the fact that its existence is a direct sign of understanding. The manual aims to significantly ease the the job of teachers and give in their hands ready-to-use tools to support learning of students, since it is quite a difficult job to create the right models for each science concept and it may take too long to explain without them the new study subject.

example mathematics

#### A circle circumscribed around a polygon

Scientific definition

A circle circumscribed around a convex polygon, we call the circle with the center of symmetry at the sides of the polygon and radius the distance ...

Model mathematics

Scientific definition

We can add two monomials as long as they are similar monomials. In order to do the operation we will add the coefficients of each monomial and we ...

example mathematics

#### Angle

Scientific definition

An angle is s shape, formed by two lines or rays diverging from a common point (the vertex). ...

example mathematics

#### Area of geometric shapes

Scientific definition

Area of a Rectangle = Base × Height. Area of a Square = Base × Height. Area of a Square = s2 Area of Triangle = ...

example mathematics

#### Arithmetic progression

Scientific definition

Arithmetic progression (AP) or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is const ...

Model mathematics

#### Associativity

Scientific definition

An operation on a set of elements giving an equivalent expression when elements are grouped without change of order, as (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ...

example mathematics

#### Axis of symmetry

Scientific definition

Any of one or more lines about which a geometric figure is symmetric.

experiment mathematics

#### Brownian motion

Scientific definition

A particle whose dimensions are in the order of the micrometer that is suspended in a fluid is subject to a disorderly movement observable under a ...

Model mathematics

#### Cartesian coordinate system

Scientific definition

It is a reference system formed by two axis perpendicular to each other that are cut at a point called the origin of coordinates. Thus, each point ...

example mathematics

#### Central angle in a circle

Scientific definition

Angle the tip of which coincides with the center O of a circle and its shoulders cross the circle at a point. ...

Model mathematics

#### Central symmetry

Scientific definition

1. A central symmetry, centered at point O, is a movement of the plane where every point P of the plane has to map to ano ...

example mathematics

#### Chord and arc of a circumference

Scientific definition

A chord is a segment that joins two points in a circumference. An arc is each one of the parts of the circumference in which it is divided by two ...

experiment mathematics

Scientific definition

The radius is the distance from the center outwards. The diameter goes straight across the circle, through the center. The circumference is the di ...

Model mathematics

#### Combinations

Scientific definition

Given a set of n different elements or objects. Select a subset of r elements out of n. Such selection is called the combination. A combination is ...

Model mathematics

#### Commutativity

Scientific definition

The "Commutative Laws" say one can swap numbers over and still get the same answer  when it  adds (a + b  =  b + a) or multiplies  (a × b  ...

Model mathematics

#### Conic sections

Scientific definition

Conic sections are flat curves obtained by the intersection of a cone and a plane. The angle that forms the plane and the axis of the cone compare ...

Model mathematics

#### Decimal Places

Scientific definition

Decimal notation is the expression of numbers through powers of 10, it is the common method employing nine digits and zero.

experiment mathematics

#### Equation

Scientific definition

An equation is a mathematical expression consisting of two terms connected by the equal sign. The two terms are called left and right sides of the ...

Model mathematics

#### Factorization

Scientific definition

The factorization or decomposition of a number in prime factors is the process of decomposing the number as a product of prime numbers and powers ...

example mathematics

#### Fractals

Scientific definition

Fractal is a term coined by the mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot in 1975 (Latin fractus, "broken", from latin frangere, (break into pieces)), whic ...

Model mathematics

#### Function

Scientific definition

A function is like a machine that has an input and an output And the output is related somehow to the input. A f ...

example mathematics

#### Geometric progression

Scientific definition

Geometric progression, also known as a geometric sequence, is a sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying t ...

example mathematics

#### Graph function

Scientific definition

If points are put in a coordinate plane whose abscissa (x) is an argument for the function, but ordinate (y) is the corresponding value of the fun ...

experiment mathematics

#### Highest common factor (hcf)

Scientific definition

The highest common factor of two or more positive integers is the greatest possible divisor of all of them.

example mathematics

#### Integral

Scientific definition

An integral is a generalization of the sum of infinite summands, infinitely small. In the case of the defined integral, this sum of infinite infin ...

experiment mathematics

#### Least common multiple (lcm)

Scientific definition

The least common multiple of two or more positive integers is the lowest positive integer that is multiple of all of them. ...

Model mathematics

#### Line-plane intersection

Scientific definition

In analytic geometry, the intersection of a line and a plane in three-dimensional space can be the empty set, a point, or a ...

Model mathematics

#### Matrix

Scientific definition

Is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns. The individual items are called elements or entries. ...

example mathematics

#### Ordinary fractions

Scientific definition

An ordinary fraction is a pair (a, b) of two natural numbers a and b, with b different by 0. The ordinary fraction is written a/b where a is the n ...

experiment mathematics

#### Parabola

Scientific definition

The parabola is the geometric location of all points in the plane that are at equal distances from a fixed point F and a fixed line l in the same ...

experiment mathematics

#### Parabola

Scientific definition

Angled body movement at an angle to the horizon.

experiment mathematics

#### Parabola

Scientific definition

Angled body movement at an angle to the horizon.

Model mathematics

#### Parallel lines

Scientific definition

Parallel lines are two lines that are always at the same distance and never touch.   ...

Model mathematics

#### Permutation

Scientific definition

Permutation is the act of arranging the members of a set into a sequence or order, or, if the set is already ordered, rearra ...

example mathematics

#### Permutation

Scientific definition

Permutation is the act of arranging the members of a set into a sequence or order, or, if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reord ...

Model mathematics

#### Polynomial

Scientific definition

A polynomial is an algebraic expression formed by the addition or subtraction of several non-similar monomials, called terms of the polynomial. Th ...

Model mathematics

#### Position of two lines

Scientific definition

Intersecting lines, if they intersect at a point. If the angle they form is 900, they are perpendicular. Coincident lines, if they contain the ...

Model mathematics

#### Prime number

Scientific definition

Is a number that only has two factors, 1 and the number itself. If a number has more than two factors, it is called composed number.

Model mathematics

#### Probability

Scientific definition

Probability is the likelihood or chance of an event occurring. Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. ...

Model mathematics

#### Probability (2)

Scientific definition

Probability is a feature of a random event, and when we create the corresponding mathematical apparatus, we get that this property is described by ...

experiment mathematics

#### Pythagorean theorem

Scientific definition

It states that the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides. ...

Model mathematics

#### Rational numbers

Scientific definition

Rational numbers are obtained by combining the concept of integers with the concept of fractions and decimals. That is, the set of fractions is ex ...

analogy mathematics

#### Rectangular Coordinate System

Scientific definition

A rectangular coordinate system of space consists of three numbers intersecting each other in the coordinate origin O, which are perpendicular to ...

example mathematics

#### Similar figures

Scientific definition

Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape,or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other. More preci ...

Model mathematics

#### Solid of revolution

Scientific definition

A solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis of revolution) that lies on the sam ...

Model mathematics

#### Square root of a number

Scientific definition

The square root of a real nonnegative number x is the real number that, multiplied by itself (or equivalent, raised to the second power), gives th ...

example mathematics

#### Straight lines that are secant or cross

Scientific definition

A straight line is secant to another when it has non-empty intersection with it. Two straight lines cross when they are not parallel and they are ...

example mathematics

#### Thales and his theorem

Scientific definition

Thales’s theorem states that if there are two parallel straight lines and they go over an angle in two lines, it gets those lines in the same rat ...

Model mathematics

#### Variation

Scientific definition

The variation of n elements by m elements (m≤n) is called the order of m elements of the given set of n elements. Each of the two variations var ...

Model mathematics

#### Vector

Scientific definition

An Euclidean vector, is an entity endowed with a magnitude (the length of the line segment (A, B)) and a direction (the direction from A to B). In ...